بررسی تأثیر متانول، تراکم و تداخل علف‌های‌هرز بر صفات مورفولوژی و عملکرد بامیه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی سیستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، زابل، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه کشاورزی، واحد بیرجند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

3 دانش‌آموخته گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

10.22034/iuvs.2021.137232.1121

چکیده

افزایش تراکم گیاه زراعی و کاربرد متانول از جمله عواملی هستند که می‌توانند موجب افزایش توان رقابتی گیاه بامیه (Abelmuschus esculentus)با علف‌های‌هرز و در نتیجه افزایش عملکرد آن شوند. با این هدف آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده- فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه پژوهشی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد بیرجند در سال زراعی 1396 انجام شد. تیمار متانول در دو سطح شامل (صفر و 20 درصد حجمی محلول‌پاشی متانول) در کرت‌های اصلی، تراکم در دو سطح شامل (پنج و 10 بوته در مترمربع) و دوره‌های عاری از علف‌هرز شامل (عاری از علف‌هرز تا پایان برداشت، عاری از علف‌هرز تا پنج هفته پس از سبز شدن و عاری از علف‌هرز تا 10 هفته پس از سبز شدن) به کرت‌های فرعی اختصاص یافت. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد میوه بامیه (1048 گرم بر مترمربع) و بیولوژیک (231 گرم بر مترمربع) در شرایط کاربرد 20 درصد حجمی متانول، تراکم 10 بوته در مترمربع و وجین علف‌های‌هرز در طول دوره رویش بود. بیشترین وزن خشک علف‌های‌هرز باریک‌برگ در شرایط عدم کاربرد متانول، تراکم پنج بوته در مترمربع و وجین علف‌های‌هرز تا پنج هفته پس از رویش (641 گرم بر مترمربع) و بیشترین وزن خشک علف‌های‌هرز پهن‌برگ در شرایط کاربرد متانول، تراکم پنج بوته در مترمربع و وجین علف‌های‌هرز تا پنج هفته پس از رویش (324 گرم بر مترمربع) بود. به‌طور کلی نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که اگرچه متانول باعث بهبود صفات بامیه در شرایط تداخل و عاری از علف‌هرز شد؛ اما انتخاب تراکم مناسب (10 بوته در مترمربع) نقش بسیار مهمی در بهبود صفات مؤثر در عملکرد میوه بامیه و حفظ آن در شرایط رقابت با علف‌هرز داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Methanol, Density and Interference of Weeds on Morphological and Yield Traits of Okra

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mansour Fazeli Rostampour 1
  • Seyyed Gholamreza Mousavi 2
  • Mohammadjavad Seghatoleslami 2
  • faramarz karegar 3
1 Assistant Professor, Horticultural Crops Research Department, Sistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Birjand, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Agricultural, Medicinal Plants and Animal Sciences Research Center, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran
3 Graduated from the Department of Birjand Agriculture, Islamic Azad University
چکیده [English]

Increasing of crop density and using methanol are among the factors, which can increase the competitiveness of okra (Abelmuschus esculentus)with weeds and cause increase of yield. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted in split plot factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the research farm of Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch in the 2017. Methanol treatment with two levels including control and 20% by volume of foliar application of methanol) have been assigned as main plots, crop density at two levels including five and 10 plants per m2 and weed-free periods including weed-free until the end of harvest, weed-free up to five weeks after emergence and weed-free up to 10 weeks after emergence allocated as sub-plots. The results showed that the highest yield of fresh okra (1048 g.m-2) and biological yield (231 g.m-2) were obtained in the application of 20% by volume of methanol, density of 10 plants per m2 and weeding during the vegetation growth stage. The maximum dry weight of narrow-leaved weeds obtained in the absence of methanol application, density of five plants per m2 and weed weeding, up to five weeks after emergence (641 g.m-2) respectively and the highest dry weight of broadleaf weeds obtained in methanol application, density of five plants per m2 and weeding up to five weeks after emergence (324 g.m-2). In general, the results of this experiment showed that although methanol, improved okra traits in interference and weed-free conditions, but selecting the appropriate density (10 plants m-2) played a very important role for the effective traits of okra to increase fresh fruit yield and maintaining it in terms of competition with weeds.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Okra
  • Chlorophyll index
  • weed dry weight
  • Fresh fruit weight
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