اثرات کاربرد هورمون‌های گیاهی بر عملکرد و خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک نخودفرنگی تحت آبیاری تکمیلی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته بین‌الملل کارشناسی‌ارشد زراعت، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهش، معاونت سرارود، مؤسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر آبیاری تکمیلی در مراحل مختلف رشد و نمو نخود‌فرنگی (گلدهی، غلاف‌دهی، گلدهی+ غلاف‌دهی و دیم) و کاربرد هورمون‌های مختلف رشد شامل اکسین (IAA)، جیبرلیک‌اسید (GA3)، سیتوکینین (6-BAP) و شاهد (آب مقطر)، آزمایشی به‌صورت اسپلیت‌پلات بر پایه‌ی طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه رازی در سال 95-1394 اجرا گردید. نتایج نشان داد، اجرای آبیاری تکمیلی در دو مرحله گلدهی و غلاف‌دهی و کاربرد هورمون‌های سیتوکینین و اکسین به‌ترتیب با مقادیر (8910، 7835، 15100 و 14381 کیلوگرم در هکتار) موجب تولید بیشترین عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک شدند. کاربرد سیتوکینین باعث افزایش میزان کارایی فتوشیمیایی فتوسیستم II، شاخص زنده‌مانی، میزان قند و پروتئین محلول و محتوی نسبی آب برگ شد. به‌طور کلی انجام آبیاری تکمیلی و استفاده از هورمون‌های رشد به‌ویژه سیتوکینین و اکسین می‌تواند جهت جلوگیری از مواجه شدن نخودفرنگی با تنش خشکی در مراحل حساس گلدهی و غلاف‌دهی و افزایش عملکرد اقتصادی آن مناسب باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Exogenous Application of Plant Hormones on Yield and Physiological Characteristics of Pea under Supplemental Irrigation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Twana Neamat Mohammed 1
  • Saeid Jalali-Honarmand 2
  • Mohammad Eghbal Ghobadi 2
  • Ali Rasaei 3
1 International M.Sc. Graduate of Agronomy, Department of Genetic and plant production, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Genetic and plant production, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Sararood Branch, Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: In crop ecosystems, legumes provide a large portion of the nitrogen required by later crops due to their ability to stabilize atmospheric nitrogen by symbiosis with bacteria. Pea (Pisum Sativum L.) is a plant that is very diverse and rich in nutrients. In areas where cereals are grown rainfed, it is a good plant to alternate with cereals. In the semi-arid regions, supplemental irrigation is one of the effective methods in compensating for soil moisture deficit and increasing water use efficiency and preventing yield fluctuations and achieving sustainable production. Since pea is a plant that has a short growth period and is harvested green and fresh, so in semi-arid regions, it can be harvested economic yield by application of supplemental irrigation during the critical stage of its growth.
Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the effect of supplemental irrigation at flowering, podding, flowering+ podding and rainfed as check and exogenous application of different hormones (3-indoleacetic acid [IAA], gibberellic acid [GA3], 6-benzylaminopurine [6-BAP] and distilled water as control), an experiment was conducted as splitplot-factorial based on randomized complete block design (RB) at Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran in 2016.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that the interaction of supplemental irrigation and hormone was significant on green pod yield, biological yield, 100-grains weight, harvest index. The number of pods per plant and grains per pod were influenced by the effects of supplemental irrigation and hormones. The use of supplemental irrigation at two stages (flowering and podding) and the application of hormones (6-BAP and IAA) with values of 8910, 7835, 15100 and 14381 kg ha-1 led to produce the highest grain yield and biological yield, respectively. Exogenous application of 6-BAP increased the Fv/Fm (photochemical efficiency of photosystem II), performance index, soluble sugar, soluble protein and leaf relative water content.
Conclusions: In general, the supplemental irrigation and exogenous application of growth hormones particularly IAA and 6-BAP, can be suitable to prevent exposure of pea to drought stress during critical stages of flowering and podding and thus increases its economic yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Economic yield
  • Growth regulators
  • Pea
  • Physiological traits
  • Supplemental irrigation
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