بررسی کارایی محلولپاشی عناصر غذایی و هرس برگ در کنترل سفیدک سطحی خیار در گلخانه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران. ایران

10.22034/iuvs.2016.25768

چکیده

سفیدک سطحی از مهمترین بیماری‌های قارچی در پرورش خیار گلخانه‌ای است که تحت شرایط مساعد درون گلخانه اغلب شیوع زیادی دارد و معمولاً برای کنترل آن از سموم قارچ‌کش استفاده می‌شود. امروزه با توجه به محدودیت‌های روزافزون کاربرد سموم به‌ویژه برای سبزی‌های تازه‌خوری مانند خیار، نیاز به رو ش‌های جایگزین سالم‌تر کنترل بیش از پیش احساس می‌گردد و در آینده نزدیک کاربرد آن‌ها برای چنین محصولاتی بایستی کاملاً ممنوع گردد. در پژوهش حاضر تأثیر هرس برگ و همچنین محلول‌پاشی کلراید کلسیم و کلراید پتاسیم با غلظت 100 میلی‌مولار، بر کنترل بیماری سفیدک سطحی خیار تحت شرایط هیدروپونیک و کشت گلخانه‌ای در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که تیمار گیاهان با هر دو فرم کلراید کلسیم و کلراید پتاسیم باعث کاهش معنی‌دار شدت آلودگی در مقایسه با گیاهان شاهد گردید. هرس برگ به تنهایی به‌جز در مورد تعداد کلنی‌های قارچ در هر گلدان، اثر معنی‌داری بر کنترل آلودگی نداشت، ولی در به‌کارگیری توأم هرس برگ‌ها و تیمار کلراید کلسیم، سفیدک سطحی به‌میزان مؤثرتری کاهش یافت. محلول‌پاشی این ترکیبات در گیاه منجر به کاهش میزان آلودگی برگ‌ها، افزایش وزن تر گیاه و شاخص کلروفیل و همچنین افزایش معنی‌دار مصرف آب در مقایسه با گیاهان شاهد گردید. نتایج بیانگر آن است که محلول‌پاشی کلراید کلسیم و پتاسیم می‌تواند جایگزین مناسبی برای سموم کنترل کننده سفیدک سطحی خیار مخصوصاً در زمان میوه‌دهی گیاه باشد. از طرفی این مواد به‌عنوان عناصر غذایی مورد نیاز گیاه سازگاری بهتری با معیارهای سلامت انسان و محیط دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Nutrient Foliar Application and Leaf Pruning in Controlling Cucumber Surface Blight in Greenhouse

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohammad Kazem Souri
Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Measles is one of the most important fungal diseases in greenhouse cucumber cultivation, which is often very common under favorable conditions in the greenhouse, and fungicides are usually used to control it. Today, due to the increasing restrictions on the use of pesticides, especially for fresh vegetables such as cucumbers, the need for healthier alternatives to control is increasingly felt, and in the near future their use for such products should be completely banned. In the present study, the effect of leaf pruning as well as foliar application of calcium chloride and potassium chloride with a concentration of 100 mM on the control of cucumber superficial whitefly under hydroponic conditions and greenhouse cultivation was studied in a completely randomized design. The results showed that treatment of plants with both forms of calcium chloride and potassium chloride significantly reduced the severity of infection compared to control plants. Leaf pruning alone had no significant effect on contamination control except for the number of fungal colonies per pot, but in the combined use of leaf pruning and calcium chloride treatment, surface blight was reduced to a more effective extent. Foliar application of these compounds in the plant led to a decrease in leaf contamination, increased plant fresh weight and chlorophyll index and also a significant increase in water consumption compared to control plants. The results indicate that foliar application of calcium and potassium chloride can be a good alternative to cucumber surface control toxins, especially during fruiting. On the other hand, these substances as nutrients required by plants are better compatible with human and environmental health standards.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cucumber
  • whitefly
  • Potassium chloride
  • Calcium chloride
  • Leaf pruning
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