تأثیر کود‌های آلی و باکتری‌های محرک رشد گیاه بر شاخص‌های رشد و محتوای عناصر غذایی اسفناج (Spinacea oleracea L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

3 استادیار گروه علوم گیاهی و گیاهان دارویی، دانشکده کشاورزی مشکین‌شهر، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

4 استادیار مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اردبیل، ایران

10.22034/iuvs.2020.32793

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثرات کاربرد کودهای آلی و زیستی بر شاخص‌های رشد و محتوای عناصر غذایی اسفناج (Spinacea oleracea L.) دو آزمایش در دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی در سال 1392 انجام شد. در آزمایش اول جهت تعیین سطوح بهینه کودهای آلی ورمی‌کمپوست، کمپوست مصرف‌شده قارچ شسته‌شده و شسته‌نشده با نسبت‌های مختلف 10، 20، 30، 40 و 50 درصد حجمی بستر به همراه شاهد در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار، استفاده شد. نتایح نشان داد بیشترین مقدار شاخص‌های رشد رویشی به‌ترتیب در گیاهان پرورش‌یافته در بسترهای کاشت حاوی 30 درصد ورمی‌کمپوست، 10 درصد کمپوست شسته‌شده و 10 درصد کمپوست شسته‌نشده حاصل شد. آزمایش دوم به‌صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار اجرا شد. ابتدا بذرهای اسفناج با سویه‌های P1، P10 و P19 از سودوموناس پوتیدا و سویه‌های R69، R150 و  R159از سودوموناس فلورسنس (سطوح فاکتور اول) تلقیح شدند. سپس بذرهای تلقیح‌شده و تلقیح‌نشده در بسترهای بهینه ورمی‌کمپوست با نسبت حجمی 30 درصد و کمپوست مصرف‌شده قارچ شسته‌شده و شسته‌نشده با نسبت حجمی 10 درصد (سطوح فاکتور دوم) کشت شدند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که تأثیر کودهای آلی و زیستی بر شاخص‌های رشد و محتوای عناصر غذایی نسبت به شاهد معنی‌دار بود. بیشترین ارتفاع بوته، شاخص کلروفیل، شاخص سطح برگ، وزن تر برگ، وزن خشک برگ، وزن خشک کل، بیشترین مقدار نیتروژن، کلسیم و پتاسیم برگ در گیاهان تلقیح‌شده با باکتری‌های سودوموناس فلورسنس سویه‌های R150 و در تیمار 30 درصد ورمی‌کمپوست در بستر کاشت حاصل شد. استفاده از پسماند کمپوست قارچ شسته‌نشده، ورمی‌کمپوست و پسماند کمپوست قارچ شسته‌شده و باکتری‌های محرک رشد گیاهی اثرات قابل‌ملاحظه‌ای بر شاخص‌های رشدی و محتوای عناصر غذایی اسفناج داشت. در بین باکتری‌های محرک رشد گیاهی مختلف، سویه R150 سودوموناس فلورسنس تأثیر بیشتری روی صفات مورد بررسی داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Growth and Nutrient Content of Spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mousa Torabi-Giglou 1
  • Hamid Noroozi 2
  • Hassan Maleki Lajayer 3
  • Bahram Dehdar 4
1 Assisant Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 M.Sc. Graduate, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Sciences and Medicinal Plants, Meshkinshahr Faculty of Agriculture, Mohaghegh Ardebil University, Ardabil, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Ardabil Province, Agricultural Research and Training Organization, Ardebil, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effects of organic and biological fertilizers on growth characteristics and nutrient content of spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.), two experiments carried out under organic farming conditions at Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Iran during 2013. In the first experiment, to determine the optimal levels of organic fertilizers, vermicompost, compost, washed and unwashed spent mushroom compost with the ratios of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 percent by volume and control media based on a complete randomized design with four replicates were used. The results showed that the highest vegetative growth parameters were obtained in plants grown in medium containing 30 % vermicompost, 10 % consumed mushroom compost and 10 % unwashed consumed mushroom compost. The second experiment was carried out in a factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design with four replications. At first, spinach seeds of P1, P10 and P19 strains of Pseudomonas putida and strains R69, R150 and R159 from Pseudomonas fluorescens (first factor levels) were inoculated. Subsequently, inoculated and uninoculated seeds were planted in optimum substrates consisted of volume ratio of 30 % vermicompost, and the washed and unwashed consumed mushroom compost each with a 10 % volume ratio (second factor levels). The results revealed that the effect of organic and biological fertilizers on growth indices and nutrient content of spinach was significantly different in compare to the control. The highest plant height, chlorophyll content, leaf area, leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, total dry weight and the highest amount of nitrogen, calcium and potassium were observed in plants inoculated with R150 strain of P. fluorescens and 30 % vermicompost in the planting bed. Application of non-leached mushroom compost residue, vermicompost and leached mushroom compost residue and plant growth promoting bacteria had significant effects on growth indices and nutrient content of spinach. Among different plant growth promoting bacteria, P. fluorescens R150 strain had more effect on the studied traits.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • spinach
  • SPAD index
  • Pseudomonas
  • Nitrogen
  • Vermicompost
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