اثر سطوح مختلف نیتروژن و سلنیوم بر کارایی مصرف نیتروژن و برخی خصوصیات مورفوفیزیولوژیکی پیاز خوراکی (Allium cepa L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد آگرواکولوژی، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 استادیار گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

10.22034/iuvs.2020.108670.1047

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر سلنیوم و نیتروژن بر برخی ویژگی‌های رشدی و بیوشیمیایی پیاز خوراکی (توده‌ی زرد اصفهان)، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه‌ی طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دانشگاه رازی و در سال 1396 اجرا شد. در این آزمایش فاکتور اول شامل زمان تقسیط کود نیتروژن (بر اساس آزمون خاک که شامل 500 کیلوگرم اوره در هکتار بود) در شش سطح شامل (عدم مصرف کود، کل کود در زمان نشاء، یک‌دوم کود در زمان نشاء، یک‌سوم کود در زمان نشاء، یک‌دوم کود در زمان نشاء+ یک‌دوم کود در زمان شروع سوخ‌دهی، یک‌سوم کود در زمان نشاء+ یک‌سوم کود در زمان شروع سوخ‌دهی+ یک‌سوم کود در زمان توسعه سوخ) و فاکتور دوم محلول‌پاشی برگی سلنیوم در سه سطح (صفر، ۱۰ و ۵۰ میلی‌گرم بر لیتر سلنات سدیم) بود. با مصرف سه مرحله‌ای کود نیتروژن بیشترین میزان عملکرد پیاز (44/21 کیلوگرم بر مترمربع)، وزن تر پیاز (83/251 گرم در سوخ)، طول سوخ (190/84 میلی‌متر)، قطر سوخ (66/78 میلی‌متر)، فنول کل (87/19 میلی‌گرم بر گرم وزن تازه)، فلاونوئید کل (30/9 میلی‌گرم بر گرم وزن تازه) و فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی (44/11 درصد) مشاهده شد. سلنیوم نیز تأثیر مثبتی بر صفات مورد بررسی (عملکرد، وزن تر، طول و قطر سوخ و فلاونوئید کل) داشت. با توجه به نتایج به‌دست آمده کاربرد توأم سلنیوم همراه با نیتروژن نقش بسیار مهمی در بهبود خصوصیات رشدی پیاز از جمله وزن خشک سوخ (73/84 گرم در سوخ) و نیز کارایی بهره‌برداری نیتروژن (1 کیلوگرم بر میلی‌گرم وزن خشک سوخ) داشت. در نتیجه کاربرد سه مرحله‌ای کود نیتروژن (مصرف یک‌سوم در زمان کشت نشاء+ یک‌سوم در زمان شروع سوخ‌‌دهی+ یک‌سوم در زمان توسعه سوخ همراه با 50 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر سلنات سدیم) توصیه می‌شود.


کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen and Selenium on Efficiency of Nitrogen Intake and Some Morphphysiological Characteristics of Edible Onion (Allium cepa L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farahnaz Veisialiakbari 1
  • Masoomeh Amerian 2
  • Mahmud Khoramivafa 2
1 M.Sc. Graduate, Department of Production Engineering and Plant Genetics, Faculty of Science and Agriculture Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Production Engineering and Plant Genetics, Faculty of Science and Agriculture Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effects of selenium and nitrogen on some growth and biochemical characteristics of edible onion (Cultivar Yellow Isfahan), a factorial experiment was conducted base on randomized complete block design with three replications at Razi University in year 2017. In this experiment, the first factor includes the time of split of nitrogen fertilizer (based on soil test, which includes 500 kg urea per hectare) in six levels including control, total fertilization at the time of transplantation, half fertilization at the time of transplantation, third fertilization at the time of transplantation, half fertilization at the time of transplantation+ half fertilization at the time of bulb initiation, third fertilization at the time of transplantation+ third fertilization at the time of bulb initiation+ third fertilization at the time of bulb growth and three levels of selenium (0, 10 and 50 mg.L-1 sodium selenate). The highest yield (21.44 Kg.m-2), fresh weight (251.83 g.bulb-1), the bulb length (84.19 mm), bulb diameter (78.66 mm), total phenol (19.87 mg.g-1 FW: fresh weight), total phenol (19.87 mg.g-1 FW: fresh weight), total flavonoid (9.30 mg.g-1 FW: fresh weight) and antioxidant activity (11.44 %) of the onion bulb were observed with nitrogen application of in three stages (third fertilization recommended at the time of transplantation+ third fertilization at the time of bulb initiation+ third fertilization at the time of bulb growth). Selenium had a positive effect on yield, fresh weight, length and diameter of bulb and total flavonoid in onion. Therefore, use of sodium selenate along with nitrogen plays an important role in improvement the growth and physiological characteristics of onion such as bulb dry weight (84.73 g.bulb-1) and nitrogen use efficiency (1 Kg.mg-1 DW: dry weight). In conclusion, split application of of 500 kg.ha-1 urea at the time transplantation, bulb initiation and bulb formation equally one third in each stage, and 50 mg.L-1 sodium selenate can be recommended for onion production.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant
  • Nitrogen uptake
  • Bulb
  • Total phenol
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