ارزیابی شاخص‌های رشدی، فیزیولوژیکی و فتوسنتزی دو رقم اسفناج (هیبرید و ایرانی) تحت تنش آب قلیایی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولیعصر رفسنجان، رفسنجان، ایران

2 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولیعصر رفسنجان، رفسنجان، ایران

3 استاد گروه علوم و مهندسی باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولیعصر رفسنجان، رفسنجان، ایران

10.22034/iuvs.2020.127057.1096

چکیده

قلیائیت اثرات مخربی بر تولید گیاهان دارد. با توجه به بالا رفتن قلیائیت خاک و آب در بسیاری از زمین‌های کشاورزی ایران، در این آزمایش اثر تنش قلیائیت بر شاخص‌های رشدی، فیزیولوژیکی و فتوسنتزی در دو رقم اسفناج ˈبرگ‌پهن ورامینˈ و هیبرید ̓ناریتاˈ مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. این آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار در سال 1397 در مزرعه دانشگاه ولیعصر رفسنجان انجام گرفت. فاکتورها شامل تنش قلیائیت در چهار سطح (صفر، 10، 20، 30 میلی‌مولار بی‌کربنات سدیم) و رقم در دو سطح بود. نتایج نشان داد که تنش قلیائیت باعث کاهش پارامترهای رشدی (وزن تر و خشک اندام هوایی، وزن خشک ریشه، تعداد برگ و سطح برگ) در هر دو رقم شد اما کاهش وزن خشک اندام هوایی و سطح برگ تحت تنش 30 میلی‌مولار بی‌کربنات سدیم در رقم هیبرید بیشتر از رقم ایرانی بود. بی‌کربنات سدیم همچنین باعث کاهش رنگیزه‌ها، کلروفیل کل، شاخص سبزینگی، شاخص PI و شاخص Fv/Fm شد و در سطح 30 میلی‌مولار بی‌کربنات کاهش 30 درصدی نرخ فتوسنتز نسبت به گیاهان شاهد مشاهده شد. با افزایش شدت تنش، محتوای آب نسبی برگ کاهش و میزان نشت یونی و پرولین برگ افزایش یافت. در رقم ایرانی تا سطح 20 میلی‌مولار افزایش چندانی در مقدار سدیم برگ مشاهده نشد. در هر دو رقم با افزایش سطوح تنش خصوصیات رشدی و فتوسنتزی گیاهان کاسته شد. رقم برگ‌پهن ورامین از نظر صفات ارزیابی‌شده در سطوح پایین بی‌کربنات (10 و 20 میلی‌مولار) تحمل بیشتری نسبت به رقم هیبرید داشت. به‌طور کلی رقم برگ‌پهن ورامین از نظر پارامترهای رشدی، فیزیولوژیکی و فتوسنتزی برای کشت و کار در شرایط قلیایی نسبت به رقم هیبرید مناسب‌تر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Growth, Physiological and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Two Spinach Cultivars (Hybrid and Iranian) under Alkaline Water Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mina Bayarash 1
  • Mahmoud Raghami 2
  • Hamidreza Roosta 3
  • Hamidreza Karimi 3
1 M.Sc. Graduated, Department of Horticulture Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Horticulture Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Alkalinity has destructive effects on plant production. Due to increasing of soil and water alkalinity in the worldwide specially Iran, in this experiment, the effects of alkalinity stress on growth, physiological and photosynthetic parameters was investigated in two cultivars of spinach (‘Barg-Pahn-e-Varamin’ and ‘NARITA’ F1 hybrid). This experiment was carried out during the 2018 as a factorial in a completely randomized design with four replications on the Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan farm. Factors included alkalinity stress at four levels (0, 10, 20, 30 mM sodium bicarbonate) and cultivars at two levels. The results showed that alkalinity stress reduced growth parameters (Shoot and root dry weight, leaf number and leaf area) in both spinach cultivars, but reduced shoot dry weight and leaf area under 30 mM sodium bicarbonate stress in hybrid cultivar was greater than Iranian cultivar. Sodium bicarbonate also reduced pigments, total chlorophyll, SPAD, PI and Fv/Fm indexes and at the level of 30 mM bicarbonate, a 30 percent reduction in photosynthesis rate was observed compared to control plants. As the stress increased, the leaf relative water content decreased and the amount of ion leakage and proline content increased. In Iranian cultivar up to 20 mM level, no significant increase in leaf sodium was observed. The results also showed that in both cultivars, with increasing stress levels, the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of plants were reduced, but it seems that the Iranian cultivar (‘Barg-Pahn-e-Varamin’) is more tolerant than hybrid cultivars according to the evaluated parameters in low concentrations of bicarbonate (10 and 20 mM). In general, this cultivar is more suitable for cultivation in alkaline conditions than hybrid cultivar according growth, physiological and photosynthetic parameters.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • spinach
  • ‘Barg-Pahn-e-Varamin’
  • Alkalinity
  • Leaf Area Index
  • Photosynthesis rate
  • Proline
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